Lead has been broken since ancient times. Its ore are widely distributed and it has low melting point so it is easily melted. It was used in antiquity to make statues, coins, utensils and writing tables. The metal is highly ductile and malleable.
What is Lead Ore
Lead (Pb) is one of the oldest metals known to humans. Its widespread occurrence, relatively simple extraction and combination of desirable properties have made it useful to humans since at least 5000 BC. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable poor metal, lead is bluish white when freshly cut, but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights for model railroad cars, and is part of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. Lead has the highest atomic number of all stable elements, although the next element, bismuth, has a half-life so long longer than the estimated age of the universe it can be considered stable. Like mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bone over time.
In deposits mined today, lead is usually found in ores which also contain zinc, silver and commonly copper and is extracted as a co-product of these metals. More than half of lead consumed today comes from recycling Rather than mining.
Currently, approximately 240 mines in more than 40 countries produce lead. World mine production was estimated to be 4.1 million metric tons in 2010, and the leading producers were China, Australia, the United States, and Peru, in descending order of output. In recent years, lead was mined domestically in Alaska, Idaho, Missouri, Montana, and Washington. In addition, secondary (recycled) lead is a significant portion of the global lead
World consumption of refined lead was 9.35 million metric tons in 2010. The leading refined lead consuming countries were China, the United States, and Germany. Demand for lead worldwide is expected to grow largely because of increased consumption in China, which is being driven by growth in the automobile and electric bicycle markets.
Typical Chemical Analysis of Lead Ore
|Calcium Oxide (CaO)||0.01 %|
|Titanium Oxide( TiO2)||0.01%|
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As a company providing mining and export services for our clients, we continually maintain existing and develop new customer relationships, while performing extensive due-diligence on our mining to maximize export resources while insuring service performance and total customer satisfaction
Uses Of Lead Ore.
Currently, Lead ranks after aluminum, copper and zinc in terms of usage with the largest application being in batteries for transport vehicles and communications. Less important uses include cable sheathing, solder, casting alloys, chemical compounds, ammunition, in ceramics and in glass for TV and computer screens for radiation protection. Its use as a petrol additive has declined significantly with the gradual introduction of lead-free petrol worldwide. New uses for lead could be in large storage batteries used for load-leveling of electrical power and in electric vehicles. Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because it is widespread, easy to extract and easy to work with. It is highly malleable and ductile as well as easy to smelt. Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey. In the early Bronze Age, lead was used with antimony and arsenic. Lead is mentioned in the Book of Exodus.
Lead oxide from the roasting process is reduced in a coke-fired blast furnace. This converts most of the lead to its metallic form. Three additional layers separate in the process and float to the top of the metallic lead. These are slag (silicates containing 1.5% lead), matte (sulfides containing 15% lead), and speiss (arsenide of iron and copper). These wastes contain concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium, and bismuth that can be recovered economically, as can their content of unreduced lead. Metallic lead that results from the roasting and blast furnace processes still contains significant contaminants of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, zinc, copper, silver, and gold. The melt is treated in a reverberatory furnace with air, steam, and sulfur, which oxidizes the contaminants except silver, gold, and bismuth. The oxidized contaminants are removed by drossing, where they float to the top and are skimmed off.
Today, many organizations are under extreme pressure to apply and optimize Commodity Sourcing in solving complex and volatile business needs. Outsourcing commodity enables companies to improve and manage of available resources by focusing energy on the core competencies of the business and achieving a more efficient service/product at a lower cost.